The 8 Intriguing Owls in Maryland



Owls in Maryland

Affiliate Disclaimer

We’re reader-sponsored! By checking out our awesome handpicked recommendations, you not only support us without spending a dime but also help us earn commissions from qualifying purchases made through links on this website. Let’s have fun and discover amazing birds together!

Across the varied landscapes of Maryland, from its dense deciduous forests to its coastal marshes and Appalachian foothills, a diverse assortment of owls makes their home. These twilight Maryland birds of prey hold a critical position in Maryland’s ecosystems, functioning as key predators and valuable components of their food chains.

Maryland Owls

Owl SpeciesFrequency in MarylandPresence in MarylandWhere to Find in Maryland
Great Horned OwlHighStatewideCatoctin Mountain Park, Thurmont; Gunpowder Falls State Park, Middle River
Eastern Screech OwlHighStatewideChesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Potomac; Assateague Island National Seashore, Berlin
Barred OwlHighStatewidePatapsco Valley State Park, Ellicott City; Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary, Lothian
Barn OwlModerateAcross Maryland, primarily in Open FieldsPocomoke River State Park, Snow Hill; Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Cambridge
Long-eared OwlLowScattered Across StateSoldiers Delight Natural Environmental Area, Owings Mills; Cunningham Falls State Park, Thurmont
Short-eared OwlLowOpen Fields and GrasslandsEastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge, Rock Hall; Fair Hill Natural Resources Management Area, Elkton
Northern Saw-whet OwlLow (Seasonal)Northern and Western Maryland in WinterGarrett State Forest, Oakland; Green Ridge State Forest, Flintstone
Snowy OwlVery Low (Seasonal)Occasional sightings in WinterBaltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Linthicum; Sandy Point State Park, Annapolis

Owl Species Found in Maryland 

Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus)

Great Horned Owl Scientific Name Bubo virginianus

The Great Horned Owl is a large owl with long wings and a large head. It’s one of the most common owls in North America.

Great Horned Owls are large, stocky birds with soft feathers that are gray to brown on their backs and white on their chests. Their faces are characterized by two black “ear” tufts, which can be raised or flattened depending on the owl’s mood. The eyes are yellow, orange, or red in color.

The habitat of the Great Horned Owl is a variety of different environments such as forests and deserts. They also live near water sources such as lakes, streams and rivers where they can hunt for fish.

The diet of the Great Horned Owl consists primarily of small mammals such as mice and rats; however they will also eat other rodents such as squirrels, rabbits and porcupines. They have been known to eat skunks too.

Eastern Screech-Owl (Megascops asio)

Eastern Screech-Owl Scientific Name: Megascops asio
Eastern Screech-Owl range map credit

Eastern Screech-Owl Sound


Scientific Name: Megascops asio

Length: 6 to 10 in

Wingspan: 8 to 24 in 

Weight: 4 – 8.5 oz

The Eastern Screech-Owl is a small owl species native to most wooded environments of the eastern half of North America, from the Canadian provinces to Florida and Texas.

Eastern Screech-Owls are relatively small and exhibit a complex pattern of gray or reddish-brown coloration, which provides excellent camouflage against tree bark.

These owls are known for their distinctive call, which is often described as a haunting trill or a whinny-like sound. Despite their name, they do not actually produce a “screech.”

Eastern Screech-Owls feed on a variety of prey, ranging from small mammals and birds to insects and even earthworms. It is primarily nocturnal, hunting at night from a low perch and swooping down onto prey.

Eastern Screech-Owls nest in tree cavities or abandoned woodpecker nests, but they readily adapt to nesting boxes where natural cavities are not available. They typically lay between 2 to 6 eggs, which are incubated primarily by the female.

Barred Owl (Strix varia)

Barred Owl Scientific Name Strix varia
Barred Owl range map credit

Barred Owl Sound


Scientific Name: Strix varia

Length: 40 to 63 cm (16 to 25 in)

Wingspan: 96 to 125 cm (38 to 49 in)

Weight: 468 to 1,150 g

The Barred Owl is a medium-sized owl with a barred pattern on its chest and belly. They have large yellow eyes that allow them to see well in low light conditions. Their ears are not very large which means they do not hear very well but they have excellent hearing abilities which allow them to detect sounds up to 1 mile away. Their feathers are brown and streaked with white, and they have black bars on their chests and wings.

Their habitats include forests, woodlands, orchards, parks, farmland and suburban backyards.

Barred Owls (also known as hoot owl) eat small mammals such as mice, rats and squirrels. They also eat insects such as beetles or grasshoppers. These owls hunt during the day when it is light out so that they can see their prey better than at night when they would be using senses other than sight like sound or smell to find their food source.

Barred owls are monogamous birds which means they mate for life. They build nests in trees or cavities on the ground and lay 2-4 eggs per year. The incubation period for these eggs lasts about 28 days before hatching takes place.

Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Barn Owl Scientific Name: Tyto alba
Barn Owl range map credit

Barn Owl Sound


Scientific Name: Tyto alba

Length: 13 to 15 in

Wingspan: 31 to 37 in 

Weight: 9.2 oz

The Barn Owl is a widespread species of owl known for its distinctive heart-shaped facial disc.

Barn Owls are medium-sized owls, they are pale overall with golden-brown wings and back, contrasted by a white face, chest, and belly. Their most notable feature is their heart-shaped facial disc, which helps channel sound to their ears.

Barn Owls are typically found in open habitats, including farmland, woodland, and marshes. They are named for their habit of nesting in human structures such as barns, church towers, and in the hollows of large trees. These owls are nocturnal, hunting at night and roosting during the day.

The diet of Barn Owls primarily consists of small mammals, particularly rodents such as mice and rats. They are known for their silent flight, which allows them to sneak up on their prey without detection.

Barn Owls have a unique nesting behavior. They do not build nests, but instead, lay their eggs directly on the bare surface of a secluded ledge or cavity. A female typically lays 4-7 eggs, and both parents help incubate the eggs and care for the chicks.

The long-eared owl (Asio otus)

Long-eared Owl Scientific Name Asio otus
Long-eared Owl range map credit

Long-eared Owl Sound


Scientific Name: Asio otus

Length: 12 and 16 in

Wingspan: 2 ft 10 in to 3 ft 4 in

Weight: 5.6 to 15.3 oz

The Long-eared Owl is a medium-sized owl species known for its distinctively long ear tufts, which can be raised or lowered depending on the bird’s mood or intention.

Long-eared Owls have mottled brown and cream plumage, which provides excellent camouflage among the trees. Their most distinctive features are their long, black-tipped ear tufts, which are set closer to the center of the head than in most other owl species.

These owls inhabit a wide variety of habitats, including deciduous and coniferous forests, woodlands, and even semi-deserts.

The Long-eared Owl’s diet primarily consists of small mammals, especially voles, but they will also take small birds and insects. They are skillful hunters, often capturing prey from a perch or in flight.

In terms of nesting behavior, Long-eared Owls do not construct their own nests, instead they take over old nests built by other bird species, usually those of corvids or other large birds. They lay an average of 4 to 5 eggs, which are incubated by the female while the male provides food.

Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus)

Short-eared Owl Scientific Name Asio flammeus
Short-eared Owl range map credit

Short-eared Owl Sound


Scientific Name: Asio flammeus

Length: 13–17 in

Wingspan: 33 to 43 in

Weight: 7.3–16.8 oz

The Short-eared Owl is a medium-sized owl species with a wide distribution, found across North and South America, Europe, Asia, and many Pacific islands. Despite its name, the “ears” of the Short-eared Owl are not often visible, as they are small and tend to blend with the bird’s feathers.

The owls are predominantly brown with buff and white accents throughout their body and wings, and dark patches around their yellow eyes.

Short-eared Owls diet consists largely of small mammals, especially voles. However, they are opportunistic hunters and will also prey on a variety of other animals, including other birds, when available.

Their habitat is characterized by open areas like grasslands, marshes, and tundra. They nest on the ground, which is unusual for owls, and this makes them vulnerable to ground predators. As such, they often live in areas with tall grasses or other ground cover for protection.

Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus)

Northern Saw-whet Owl Scientific Name Aegolius acadicus
Northern Saw-whet Owl range map credit

Northern Saw-whet Owl Sound


Scientific Name: Aegolius acadicus

Length: 17–22 cm (6.7–8.7 in)

Wingspan: 42–56.3 cm (16.5–22.2 in)

Weight: 54 to 151 g (1.9 to 5.3 oz)

The Northern Saw-whet Owl is a tiny, speckled gray owl and it’s one of the smallest owls in North America. It’s also known as the Little Owl or Wood Owl in some areas.

Northern Saw-whet Owls have dark brown eyes, white eyebrows, and yellow beak. It has brownish-grey feathers that are spotted with white. The owl’s legs are covered in feathers and appear nearly invisible when the bird is perched on a branch or tree.

In the winter they migrate south to warmer climates. They prefer to live in dense coniferous forest with large trees but will occasionally nest in shrubs or other vegetation that can protect them from predators.

The Northern Saw-whet Owl eats mice and voles (small rodents), small birds, frogs, salamanders, moles and shrews, but unlike most owls they chop their prey up and spread over a few meals. They will also eat insects like beetles and grasshoppers if they are available. It hunts from a perch at night using its excellent hearing to locate prey items within about 30 feet (9 meters) of its nest.

These owls nest in tree cavities usually located close to water sources such as lakes or rivers where they can find their food source (insects). They lay 2-4 eggs at one time which incubate for about 30 days before hatching.

Snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus)

Snowy owl Scientific Name Bubo scandiacus
Snowy owl range map credit

Snowy owl Sound


Scientific Name: Bubo scandiacus

Length: 20.7 to 28 in

Wingspan: 3 ft 10 in to 6 ft 0 in

Weight: 3.2lb to 5.3lb

The Snowy Owl, is of the most well-known species of owls, the Snowy Owl is renowned for its striking appearance and adaptations to its extreme environment.

Snowy Owls are medium sized birds that possess a rounded head, yellow eyes, and a black beak. The most distinctive feature of the Snowy Owl is its white plumage, which provides effective camouflage in its snowy habitat. Male Snowy Owls are often almost completely white, while females and younger owls have more extensive dark barring on their plumage.

Unlike many owl species, Snowy Owls are primarily diurnal, which means they are active during the day. This is an adaptation to life in the Arctic, where there can be 24 hours of daylight in the summer. Their diet mainly consists of small mammals, particularly lemmings, but they are known to eat a variety of animals including birds, fish, and even carrion when necessary.

Snowy Owls nest on the ground, usually on a mound or boulder. Their breeding success is closely tied to the availability of food, and in good years a single pair of owls can raise a large brood of chicks.

Where to Spot Maryland’s Owls

Catoctin Mountain Park, Thurmont: This national park provides a diverse habitat for many bird species, including Great Horned Owls, Barred Owls, and Eastern Screech Owls hunt here.

Assateague Island National Seashore, Berlin: This barrier island is home to a variety of bird species, and owls can often be seen in the island’s forested areas. Look for Great Horned Owls, Barred Owls, and in winter, the Short-eared Owl.

Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Cambridge: This refuge provides an excellent habitat for a variety of bird species, including several other owls such as the Great Horned Owl, Barred Owl, and Eastern Screech Owl.

Patapsco Valley State Park, Ellicott City: Covering riverbanks, hills, and forests, this state park is a good spot to see Great Horned Owls, Barred Owls, and Eastern Screech Owls. To help spot them look for owl feathers on the ground to find their breeding grounds.

Cunningham Falls State Park, Thurmont: With its extensive forest, the park is an excellent habitat for Great Horned Owls, Barred Owls, and Eastern Screech Owls.

StateMain Owl Watching Sites
Maryland OwlsAssateague Island National Seashore, Catoctin Mountain Park
Pennsylvania OwlsAllegheny National Forest, Hawk Mountain Sanctuary
West Virginia OwlsCanaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge, New River Gorge National Park
Virginia OwlsShenandoah National Park, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge
Delaware OwlsBombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Cape Henlopen State Park

Tips on How to Spot Owls in Maryland?

  1. Identify Ideal Locations: Prime owl-spotting areas in Maryland include Catoctin Mountain Park, Patuxent River State Park, and the Eastern Shore, particularly Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge. Check local birdwatching forums or groups for current owl sightings.

  2. Spot Owls at the Right Time: Owls are primarily nocturnal creatures, so your best chances of seeing them are at dawn or dusk. However, during the breeding season in late winter and early spring, you may spot or hear them during the day as well.

  3. Learn Owl Calls: Each species of owl has its distinct call. Familiarizing yourself with these calls will help you locate owls even when they are hidden. You can find recordings of owl calls on various birding websites or apps.

  4. Look for Signs: Signs of owls can include whitewash (owl droppings) on the ground or tree trunks, owl pellets, or even feathers. These can give you an idea of where an owl might be roosting.

  5. Be Patient and Quiet: Owls can be elusive, so patience is key. Move slowly and keep noise to a minimum to avoid startling them.

  6. Proper Equipment: Bring a pair of good quality binoculars to help spot owls at a distance, and a field guide to help you identify different species. If you’re owl-spotting at night, a red-filtered flashlight can be useful as it’s less likely to disturb the owls.

  7. Join Local Birdwatching Groups: These groups often conduct owl prowls and other birdwatching events, which can be an excellent way to learn from more experienced birders.

Latest posts