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Colorado, with its diverse habitats and rich avian life, is a paradise for bird watchers and nature enthusiasts alike. Among the hundreds of bird species found in the state, the Birds of Prey hold a unique allure. From the grasslands to the soaring Rockies, these magnificent raptors dominate the skies with their power and grace.
Here are the birds of prey you might find in Colorado with information on where to see them:
American Kestrel: These small falcons are quite common and can be found all over the state, especially in open areas with scattered trees.
Bald Eagle: They are common along major river corridors and lakes across the state, especially during the winter.
Barn Owl: These are primarily found in the Eastern Plains and the Western Slope. They nest in human-made structures like barns.
Barred Owl: Mostly found in the foothills and lower montane forests of the state. They are not a common species in Colorado.
Burrowing Owl: Quite common in the prairies and agricultural lands of Eastern Colorado, where they live in abandoned prairie dog burrows.
Cooper’s Hawk: Common in woodlands and forests across the state, especially in riparian areas.
Ferruginous Hawk: These large hawks are common in the grasslands and prairies of Eastern Colorado.
Flammulated Owl: These small owls can be found in the pine and fir forests of the Rocky Mountains, but they are not common.
Golden Eagle: Widespread across the state, these birds are particularly common in the mountainous areas and the Western Slope.
Merlin: These small falcons can be found statewide, but are more common in the eastern plains, especially during migration and winter.
Mississippi Kite: These birds are most common in the southeastern part of the state, particularly in Prowers and Bent Counties, where they nest in trees.
Northern Goshawk: They are found primarily in mature forests in the mountains and foothills.
Northern Harrier: These hawks are common in the marshes and fields across the state.
Northern Pygmy Owl: They are found in the montane forests throughout the state but are not a common species.
Northern Saw-Whet Owl: These small owls are found in the coniferous forests of the Rocky Mountains.
Osprey: These fish-eating birds of prey are common near large bodies of water across the state, especially in the mountains.
Peregrine Falcon: Peregrines are found statewide, and they are particularly common in the mountains and along the Front Range. They also nest on tall buildings in Denver and other cities.
Prairie Falcon: They are common in the grasslands and deserts of Western and Eastern Colorado.
Red-Tailed Hawk: They are the most common hawks in the state, found in a variety of habitats statewide.
Swainson’s Hawk: These birds are common in the eastern plains and prairies of Colorado during
Other birds of prey which are rare visitors to the state include Boreal Owl, Crested Caracara, Gyrfalcon, Harris’s Hawk, rough legged hawk, sparrow hawk, turkey vulture, great horned owl and Spotted Owl.
The American Kestrel, often recognized as the smallest and most brightly colored falcon in North America, exhibits a stunning array of rufous, blue and gray hues in its plumage. This bird, ranging in size from a mere 22 to 31 cm, carries distinct black facial markings that contrast with its white cheeks and has blue gray wings. Despite its small stature, the American Kestrel is a formidable predator, employing a unique hunting strategy that involves hovering at a height before swooping down on prey, primarily consisting of insects, small mammals, and occasionally small birds.
Residing predominantly in North and South America, the American Kestrel exhibits a preference for open habitats such as meadows, grasslands, and deserts. They are also found in both urban and suburban environments, nesting in cavities in trees, cliffs, buildings, and other structures. Kestrels are monogamous, with both sexes participating in the courtship displays that involve aerial acrobatics and feeding rituals. Nesting duties are a shared responsibility, with the male initially scouting for suitable locations and the female making the final selection. Both parents contribute to the incubation of the eggs and care of the young, ensuring the perpetuation of this captivating species.
Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)
Bald Eagle Sound
Scientific Name: Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Length: 28–40 in
Wingspan: 5 ft 11 in and 7 ft 7 in
Weight: 6.6 -13.9 lb
The Bald Eagle, primarily found in Canada and Alaska, is instantly identifiable by its white head, dark brown body, yellow beak, and a piercing cry. Its sharp, orange-yellow eyes aid in efficient night hunting.
Predominantly residing in North America, occasionally venturing into Asia and Europe, it thrives near water bodies. It perches atop trees, providing a bird’s-eye view of its prey. It feeds on fish, carrion, small mammals like rabbits and squirrels, and reptiles. Hunting involves a swift downward swoop to seize the prey, carrying it back to the nest.
Bald Eagles are monogamous, forming lifelong pairings. They construct vast nests from sticks, lined with moss or grasses. They typically lay 1-3 eggs annually, which hatch around 35 days later. The fledglings leave the nest roughly 6 weeks after hatching, but continue to rely on their parents for nourishment for a further 5-6 months, until they become proficient hunters.
Barn Owl (Tyto alba)
Barn Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Tyto alba
Length: 13 to 15 in
Wingspan: 31 to 37 in
Weight: 9.2 oz
The Barn Owl is a widespread species of owl known for its distinctive heart-shaped facial disc.
Barn Owls are medium-sized owls, they are pale overall with golden-brown wings and back, contrasted by a white face, chest, and belly. Their most notable feature is their heart-shaped facial disc, which helps channel sound to their ears.
Barn Owls are typically found in open habitats, including farmland, woodland, and marshes. They are named for their habit of nesting in human structures such as barns, church towers, and in the hollows of large trees. These owls are nocturnal, hunting at night and roosting during the day.
The diet of Barn Owls primarily consists of small mammals, particularly rodents such as mice and rats. They are known for their silent flight, which allows them to sneak up on their prey without detection.
Barn Owls have a unique nesting behavior. They do not build nests, but instead, lay their eggs directly on the bare surface of a secluded ledge or cavity. A female typically lays 4-7 eggs, and both parents help incubate the eggs and care for the chicks.
Barred Owl (Strix varia)
Barred Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Strix varia
Length: 40 to 63 cm (16 to 25 in)
Wingspan: 96 to 125 cm (38 to 49 in)
Weight: 468 to 1,150 g
The Barred Owl is a medium-sized owl with a barred pattern on its chest and belly. They have large yellow eyes that allow them to see well in low light conditions. Their ears are not very large which means they do not hear very well but they have excellent hearing abilities which allow them to detect sounds up to 1 mile away. Their feathers are brown and streaked with white, and they have black bars on their chests and wings.
Their habitats include forests, woodlands, orchards, parks, farmland and suburban backyards.
Barred Owls (also known as hoot owl) eat small mammals such as mice, rats and squirrels. They also eat insects such as beetles or grasshoppers. These owls hunt during the day when it is light out so that they can see their prey better than at night when they would be using senses other than sight like sound or smell to find their food source.
Barred owls are monogamous birds which means they mate for life. They build nests in trees or cavities on the ground and lay 2-4 eggs per year. The incubation period for these eggs lasts about 28 days before hatching takes place.
Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia)
Burrowing Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Athene cunicularia
Length: 7–11 in
Wingspan: 20–24 in
The Burrowing Owl is a small, long-legged species of owl found in North and South America. Known for its unusual habit of living in burrows in the ground.
Burrowing Owls have a rounded head with no ear tufts and bright yellow eyes. Their overall coloration is mottled brown and white with a distinct white “eyebrow” above each eye.
Their primary habitat includes open landscapes such as grasslands, deserts, agricultural areas, golf courses, and even airports. As their name suggests, these owls often reside in burrows, many of which are abandoned by prairie dogs, ground squirrels, or other burrowing animals. In some cases, they may also dig their own burrows.
Burrowing Owls diet consists mainly of small mammals and insects, but they also eat birds and reptiles.
Burrowing Owls have a unique nesting behavior. They lay their eggs in an underground burrow to protect them from predators and extreme weather. Clutch sizes range from 6 to 11 eggs, which are incubated for about a month before hatching.
Cooper’s Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)
The Cooper’s Hawk is a medium-sized bird of prey native to North America. Known for its agility and speed, it is part of the Accipitridae hawk species, which also includes other hawks, eagles, and kites.
Cooper’s Hawks are typically about 14 to 20 inches in length, with a wingspan ranging from 27 to 36 inches. They are known for their distinctive long, rounded tails and short, rounded wings. They have a steely blue gray top, with rusty bars on their underparts and thick, dark bands on their tails.
The Cooper’s Hawk is a skilled predator, primarily hunting birds and small mammals. They are adept at hunting in both dense forests and open areas, often catching prey mid-air in high-speed pursuits. They have also been known to visit the backyard bird feeder, not for the seed, but to prey on the smaller birds that gather there.
Cooper’s Hawks often build nests in dense tree canopies where they are well concealed. The female usually lays 3 to 5 eggs, and both parents share incubation duties. The young hawks fledge after about a month but will stay close to the nest, relying on their parents for food as they learn to hunt.
Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis)
Ferruginous Hawk Sound
Scientific Name: Buteo regalis
Length: 20 to 27 in
Wingspan: 48 to 60 in
Weight: 32.0 to 80.0 oz
The Ferruginous Hawkis the largest hawk species native to North America. Known for its distinctive coloration and impressive size, this bird of prey predominantly inhabits the open landscapes of the western United States and parts of Canada.
Ferruginous Hawks are notable for their “ferruginous” or rust-colored back and shoulders, which contrasts sharply with the bird’s white underside. The hawk also has broad, rounded wings and a large, gape-mouthed beak. Ferruginous hawks exhibit dark morph and light morphs. Dark morphs have dark brown plumage, while light morphs display lighter, reddish-brown plumage. Morphs vary geographically.
Primarily feeding on small to medium sized mammals like rabbits and prairie dogs, the Ferruginous Hawk is an agile hunter, often seen soaring high above the ground or perched prominently while scanning for prey. It occasionally feeds on birds, reptiles, and insects as well.
Nesting for Ferruginous Hawks typically occurs on cliffs, hillsides, or large trees. The female lays between 2 to 5 eggs, and both parents share in the incubation and rearing of the chicks. The Ferruginous Hawk is a relatively solitary bird outside of the breeding season, and its call is a loud, high-pitched scream, often heard during courtship or near the nest.
Flammulated Owl (Psiloscops flammeolus)
Flammulated Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Psiloscops flammeolus
Length: 6 in
Wingspan: 14 in
Weight: 1.8 – 2.3 oz
The Flammulated Owl is a small owl species native to North America, notable for its incredible migratory journeys, which may span thousands of miles.
Flammulated Owls name “flammulated” comes from the Latin word for flame, and it refers to their flame-like markings. These owls sport a mottled gray and rust color, with dark eye patches and a white throat. Their small size and cryptic plumage help them to blend into the bark of the trees in which they reside.
One of the defining traits of the Flammulated Owl is their diet they predominantly eat insects, particularly moths and beetles.
These owls prefer to nest in mature forests, often in old woodpecker holes or natural tree cavities. They typically lay 2-4 eggs, with the female incubating them for about three weeks, while the male provides food.
Flammulated Owls are known for their soft, low hooting call which can be difficult to hear. This, along with their excellent camouflage, often makes them challenging to spot, despite their widespread distribution.
Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)
Golden Eagle Sound
Scientific Name:Aquila chrysaetos
Length: 26 to 40 in
Wingspan: 5 ft 11 in to 7 ft 8 in
Weight: 8.9 and 14.0 lb
The Golden Eagle is a large bird of prey known for its strength, speed, and hunting prowess.
Adult Golden Eagles are large birds, and are named for the golden-brown plumage on their heads and necks, which contrasts with their darker brown body feathers. Their eyes, legs, and bill are all yellow.
These eagles prefer open, rugged terrain, including mountains, hills, grasslands, and deserts. They are most often found in areas that provide good opportunities for soaring and hunting.
Golden Eagles have a varied diet but primarily prey on small to medium-sized mammals such as rabbits, hares, and ground squirrels. They are also capable of taking larger prey, like young deer or livestock, but these are not typically part of their diet.
Golden Eagles build large nests or eyries, usually on cliffs or in tall trees. The nests are often reused and added to each year, becoming enormous structures over time. The female typically lays 1 to 4 eggs, which both parents incubate.
Merlin (Falco columbarius)
Scientific Name: Falco columbarius
Length: 9.4–13.0 in
Wingspan: 20–29 in
Weight: 5.8 – 8.1 ozz
The Merlin is a small, robust falcon known for its blue-gray or dark brown upperparts and thinly streaked, buff to orange underparts. Unlike other falcons, it has faint facial markings, offering a more uniform look.
This compact bird, renowned for its hunting prowess, chases down small birds in mid-air, exemplifying its impressive speed and agility.
Residing across northern North America, Europe, and Asia, the Merlin prefers open or semi-open landscapes. Rather than constructing their own nests, they tend to reuse old crow or raptor nests, or choose to nest on the ground in open habitats.
During courtship, males perform elaborate aerial displays. Both parents share egg incubation duties, with the male also responsible for feeding the family, reflecting the Merlin’s fascinating role in the biodiversity of its ecosystems.
Mississippi Kite (Ictinia mississippiensis)
Mississippi Kite Sound
Scientific Name: Ictinia mississippiensis
Length: 12 to 15 inches (30–37 cm)
Wingspan: 3 feet (91 cm)
Weight: 214 to 388 grams (7.6–13.7 oz)
The Mississippi kite is a medium-sized bird of prey native to North America. It has a white belly and chest, with brown wings and tail and pointed wings. They have a black mask on their face, and the males have blue markings on their wings.
The Mississippi kites habitat is open grassland, including prairies, pastures, and meadows. It can also be found in wetlands such as marshes and swamps. It prefers warmer climates but can survive in cooler regions if there are many trees nearby that provide nesting sites.
The diet of these birds consists mostly of insects such as grasshoppers, beetles and dragonflies. They also eat small rodents that they catch while flying over fields or while perched on tall trees or telephone poles.
The Mississippis kite nest looks like a shallow bowl built with sticks, twigs and grasses. They lay between 2-5 eggs per year, which take about two weeks to hatch into chicks that fledge after two months. The breeding season for Mississippi Kites typically occurs from May to July
Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)
The Northern Goshawk is a medium-sized hawk that is found in North America, Europe and Asia. It has brown eyes, a large sharp beak, and dark brown plumage on its upperparts and head, with white underparts that are spotted with brown barring. Its tail feathers are grayish-black with a dark band near the tip.
Northern goshawks eat squirrels, rabbits, grouse, woodchucks and other small mammals like voles or mice (which they often eat whole). They will also take larger prey such as deer fawns or even adult deer if they have no other choice. They have broad wings with long feathers that allow them to glide through the air when they catch their prey. They also have an excellent sense of smell which helps them locate their food source.
The Northern Goshawk builds its nest in a tree cavity or on a ledge, usually on the edge of an open area so it can easily see prey below. The female lays 3 to 5 eggs over two days and incubates them for 28 to 30 days while the male brings food to her every few hours until they hatch. The young fledge after about 6 weeks and leave the nest when they are about 10 weeks old.
Northern Harrier (Circus hudsonius)
The Northern Harrier is a medium-sized, slender hawk.
Adult birds are gray above, with pale bars on the wing feathers and white markings on the underwings and a white rump patch. The breast is barred with black and white, and the belly is streaked with brown.
They prefer open areas, such as grasslands and marshes, but can be found in almost any open habitat except dense woods.
Northern Harriers are opportunistic hunters that feed on small mammals such as mice, voles and rabbits as well as birds including quail, grouse and ducks. They hunt by flying low over open spaces such as fields or marshes.
Northern harrier nests on the ground in lowlands or hillsides near water bodies. It lays two to four eggs which hatch after 24 days of incubation by both parents. The chicks fledge after 30 days of hatching and remain dependent on their parents for another three weeks during which they learn how to fly.
Northern Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium gnoma)
Northern Pygmy-Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Glaucidium gnoma
Length: 7 – 7 1/2 in)
Wingspan: 14.5 – 16 in
The Northern Pygmy-Owl is a small owl species native to North and Central America. Despite its small size, this owl is a fierce predator, known for its distinctive call and daytime hunting habits.
They have a rounded head without ear tufts and large yellow eyes. Their overall coloration is gray or brown with a pattern of white spots on the back and streaks on the front.
Northern Pygmy-Owls inhabit a range of habitats, including coniferous forests, deciduous woodlands, and mixed forests. They can be found at a range of elevations from lowlands to mountains. Unlike many other owl species, they are often active during the day, particularly in the early morning and late afternoon.
Their diet primarily consists of small mammals and birds, but they are also known to eat insects and reptiles. Despite their small size, they have been known to take prey up to three times their own size.
Northern Pygmy-Owls nest in tree cavities, often those created by woodpeckers. They do not build nests of their own but will add a few feathers to the cavity. Clutch size is usually around 2 to 7 eggs, which are incubated by the female while the male brings food.
Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus)
Northern Saw-whet Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Aegolius acadicus
Length: 17–22 cm (6.7–8.7 in)
Wingspan: 42–56.3 cm (16.5–22.2 in)
Weight: 54 to 151 g (1.9 to 5.3 oz)
The Northern Saw-whet Owl is a tiny, speckled gray owl and it’s one of the smallest owls in North America. It’s also known as the Little Owl or Wood Owl in some areas.
Northern Saw-whet Owls have dark brown eyes, white eyebrows, and yellow beak. It has brownish-grey feathers that are spotted with white. The owl’s legs are covered in feathers and appear nearly invisible when the bird is perched on a branch or tree.
In the winter they migrate south to warmer climates. They prefer to live in dense coniferous forest with large trees but will occasionally nest in shrubs or other vegetation that can protect them from predators.
The Northern Saw-whet Owl eats mice and voles (small rodents), small birds, frogs, salamanders, moles and shrews, but unlike most owls they chop their prey up and spread over a few meals. They will also eat insects like beetles and grasshoppers if they are available. It hunts from a perch at night using its excellent hearing to locate prey items within about 30 feet (9 meters) of its nest.
These owls nest in tree cavities usually located close to water sources such as lakes or rivers where they can find their food source (insects). They lay 2-4 eggs at one time which incubate for about 30 days before hatching.
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)
Scientific Name: Pandion haliaetus
Length: 50–66 cm (19+1⁄2–26 in)
Wingspan: 127–180 cm (50–71 in)
Weight: 0.9–2.1 kg (2 lb 0 oz – 4 lb 10 oz)
The Osprey, a fascinating bird of prey, is universally known for its exceptional hunting prowess and striking physical characteristics. Osprey are dark brown hawks on the upperparts, contrasting beautifully with the predominantly white underparts, and a distinctive dark band that stretches across the eyes towards the sides of its head.
Equipped with specialized talons and a reversible outer toe, the Osprey’s hunting strategy involves a spectacular plunge-dive into bodies of water, often emerging with a fish securely gripped in its claws.
Found on every continent except Antarctica, the Osprey is a cosmopolitan species favoring habitats near water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and coastal areas, reflecting its piscivorous diet. This bird has a diet almost exclusively of fish, making it a unique member of the raptor family and often referred to as the sea hawk or fish hawk. They locate their prey from the air, often hovering before plunging feet-first to capture a fish. When it comes to breeding, Ospreys are monogamous, often mating for life.
They construct large, bulky nests made of sticks, lined with softer materials, and prefer elevated or isolated areas such as treetops or artificial structures like utility poles. Both parents share the responsibility of incubating the eggs and rearing the chicks.
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)
Peregrine Falcon Sound
Scientific Name: Falco peregrinus
Length: 14.2-19.3 in
Wingspan: 39.4-43.3 in
Weight: 530-1600 g
Known for its blue-gray plumage and unique cheek bars, the Peregrine Falcon stands as a beacon of power and swiftness. Despite its modest size, it reigns as the world’s fastest creature, reaching staggering speeds up to 240 mph during hunting dives.
Its diet mainly includes birds, occasionally bats, caught in an enthralling aerial display of agility and precision. Adapting to diverse habitats, this bird graces every continent except Antarctica, finding home in environments from city skyscrapers to towering cliffs.
Peregrine Falcons, monogamous in nature, often pair for life, expressing their bonds through complex courtship flights filled with intricate aerial maneuvers. They construct simple scrape nests on high ledges, often without adding materials.
Their parenting duties are shared, from egg incubation to feeding and caring for the chicks, ensuring their offspring are ready to take on the skies in their own time.
Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus)
Prairie Falcon Sound
Scientific Name: Falco mexicanus
Length: 15 in – 17.7 in
Wingspan: 3.5 feet
Weight: 1.1 to 2.1 lbs
The Prairie Falcon, is a large falcon species that inhabits the open landscapes of North America, particularly in the western regions of the continent. Known for its agility and speed, this bird of prey is a skilled hunter and a master of flight.
Prairie Falcons sport a distinct color pattern with a pale, buffy brown body, contrasted with darker wingtips and a characteristic “mustache” mark near the eyes, a feature common to many falcons.
The Prairie Falcon’s diet primarily consists of small mammals and birds. It is known for its high-speed aerial pursuits, diving onto its prey from great heights. This agile predator often utilizes the open terrain of its habitat, making swift, low-level flights to catch prey off-guard.
Nesting for the Prairie Falcon often takes place on high cliff ledges, where it lays a clutch of 3 to 5 eggs. After hatching, the young falcons remain in the nest for up to six weeks, continuing to rely on their parents for food until they master hunting skills.
Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)
The Red-tailed Hawk is a large bird of prey that is commonly found across North America. This species is part of the genus Buteo, which is often referred to as the “true hawks,” and includes more than two dozen species of raptors.
Red-tailed Hawks have a robust size, ranging from 18 to 26 inches in length and sporting a wingspan that can exceed 4 feet. They have a broad, rounded set of wings and a short, wide red tail. This species is most easily recognized by its rich, rust-colored tail, which gives it its common name. However, juvenile hawks might not yet have this distinctive feature.
Their feathers are generally dark brown on their dorsal side (back) with a lighter, often speckled, ventral side (front). The intensity and pattern of their plumage can vary significantly based on their age and geographic location, as there are about 14 recognized subspecies of Red-tailed Hawks.
As for their diet, Red-tailed Hawks are carnivores and have a broad diet that includes rodents, ground rabbits, reptiles, and other birds. They are skilled hunters that typically sit on high perches and use their keen eyesight to spot potential prey. Once they have identified a target, they swoop down to capture it with their powerful talons.
Red-tailed Hawks mate for life and build nests high off the ground, often in tall trees or on cliff edges. Their nests are made of sticks and can be quite large. They typically lay 1-3 eggs per year, which are incubated by both parents.
Red-tailed Hawk Sound
Swainson’s Hawk (Buteo swainsoni)
Listen: Swainson’s Hawk
Swainson’s Hawk is a medium-sized hawk that is found in North America and South America, Scientific Name: Buteo swainsoni.
The bird has a blue-gray plumage with a dark brown back, wings, and tail. It also has a white chest and belly. The beak and feet are black, but the eyes are yellow. They are often confused with Cooper’s Hawk because of similar coloring, but Swainson’s Hawks have wider tails and longer wings than their cousin species.
These birds eat small rodents such as gophers and mice. They also eat insects like grasshoppers and crickets during the summer months when they’re plentiful. They sometimes steal prey from other birds of prey such as Northern Harriers who hunt the same prey.
Swainson’s Hawks build nests on rocky cliffs near water sources where they can find food easily. They lay three to five eggs that hatch after about two months into fluffy brown baby hawks who leave the nest after about three weeks (or when they’re big enough).
Where to Spot Birds of Prey in Colorado
1. Rocky Mountain National Park: This stunning park is a haven for various birds of prey, including Golden Eagles, Peregrine Falcons, and Northern Goshawks. With a vast area covering over 415 square miles, you have ample opportunity to spot these magnificent raptors soaring above the rugged mountains and verdant valleys.
2. Barr Lake State Park: Located in the northeastern part of the Denver metropolitan area, this park is particularly known for its birding opportunities. It hosts a diversity of raptors including Bald Eagles, Ospreys, and various species of hawks. A nesting pair of Bald Eagles is one of the main attractions here.
3. Pawnee National Grassland: Situated in the northeastern part of Colorado, this extensive grassland is an excellent spot to see birds of prey. Ferruginous Hawks, Prairie Falcons, and Burrowing Owls are common sights here.
4. San Luis Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex: This complex, made up of three separate refuges, is located in south-central Colorado and is a fantastic spot to view a variety of raptors. The area attracts a myriad of bird species, with Golden Eagles, Northern Harriers, and several types of owls being among the highlights.