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In Wyoming’s expansive landscapes, from its towering mountains and vast plains to its diverse forests and desert scrublands, a variety of owl species find their home. The owl species in Wyoming range from the diminutive Northern Pygmy-Owls to the impressive Great Horned Owls, each exhibiting distinctive behaviors and adaptations relevant to their specific habitats.
Grand Teton National Park, Moose; Curt Gowdy State Park, Cheyenne
Western Screech Owl
Sinks Canyon State Park, Lander; Shoshone National Forest
Near Casper, especially around Muddy Mountain
Across agricultural lands near Cheyenne
Low (seasonal, winter)
In open fields and prairies in Sheridan area
Great Gray Owl
Near Teton Range and Yellowstone National Park
In forested areas in the Bighorn Mountains
Thunder Basin National Grassland, Douglas; Ayres Natural Bridge Park, Douglas
Northern Pygmy Owl
Bridger-Teton National Forest; Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests
Northern Saw-whet Owl
Bighorn National Forest; Yellowstone National Park
Wind River Range; Star Valley
Guernsey State Park, Guernsey; Boysen State Park, Shoshoni
Casper Mountain Park, Casper; Buffalo Bill State Park, Cody
Owl Species Found in Wyoming
Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus)
Great Horned Owl Sound
Scientific Name:Bubo virginianus
Length: 18.1-24.8 in
Wingspan: 39.8-57.1 in
Weight: 32.1-88.2 oz
The Great Horned Owl is a large owl with long wings and a large head. It’s one of the most common owls in North America.
Great Horned Owls are large, stocky birds with soft feathers that are gray to brown on their backs and white on their chests. Their faces are characterized by two black “ear” tufts, which can be raised or flattened depending on the owl’s mood. The eyes are yellow, orange, or red in color.
The habitat of the Great Horned Owl is a variety of different environments such as forests and deserts. They also live near water sources such as lakes, streams and rivers where they can hunt for fish.
The diet of the Great Horned Owl consists primarily of small mammals such as mice and rats; however they will also eat other rodents such as squirrels, rabbits and porcupines. They have been known to eat skunks too.
Western Screech-Owl (Western Screech-Owl)
Western Screech-Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Megascops kennicottii
Length: 22 cm (8.7 in)
Wingspan: 55 cm (22 in)n
Weight: 88 to 220 g (3.1 to 7.8 oz)
The Western Screech-Owl, or Megascops kennicottii, is a small species of owl native to North and Central America. Western Screech-Owls are nocturnal predators, and its diet primarily consists of small mammals, birds, insects, and occasionally fish.
This owl is medium-sized compared to other screech-owls. It has a compact, stocky body, and is often recognized by its large head with yellow eyes surrounded by greyish-brown facial disks. The plumage is generally a mixture of grey and brown, with intricate patterns of spots and streaks that provide excellent camouflage against tree bark.
These owls prefer mixed woodland habitats, including deciduous forests and semi-open areas with trees. They often nest in tree cavities, but will also readily take to nest boxes if available. These birds are primarily non-migratory, and once they’ve established a territory, they tend to stay within the same area year-round.
Barred Owl (Strix varia)
Barred Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Strix varia
Length: 40 to 63 cm (16 to 25 in)
Wingspan: 96 to 125 cm (38 to 49 in)
Weight: 468 to 1,150 g
The Barred Owl is a medium-sized owl with a barred pattern on its chest and belly. They have large yellow eyes that allow them to see well in low light conditions. Their ears are not very large which means they do not hear very well but they have excellent hearing abilities which allow them to detect sounds up to 1 mile away. Their feathers are brown and streaked with white, and they have black bars on their chests and wings.
Their habitats include forests, woodlands, orchards, parks, farmland and suburban backyards.
Barred Owls (also known as hoot owl) eat small mammals such as mice, rats and squirrels. They also eat insects such as beetles or grasshoppers. These owls hunt during the day when it is light out so that they can see their prey better than at night when they would be using senses other than sight like sound or smell to find their food source.
Barred owls are monogamous birds which means they mate for life. They build nests in trees or cavities on the ground and lay 2-4 eggs per year. The incubation period for these eggs lasts about 28 days before hatching takes place.
Barn Owl (Tyto alba)
Barn Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Tyto alba
Length: 13 to 15 in
Wingspan: 31 to 37 in
Weight: 9.2 oz
The Barn Owl is a widespread species of owl known for its distinctive heart-shaped facial disc.
Barn Owls are medium-sized owls, they are pale overall with golden-brown wings and back, contrasted by a white face, chest, and belly. Their most notable feature is their heart-shaped facial disc, which helps channel sound to their ears.
Barn Owls are typically found in open habitats, including farmland, woodland, and marshes. They are named for their habit of nesting in human structures such as barns, church towers, and in the hollows of large trees. These owls are nocturnal, hunting at night and roosting during the day.
The diet of Barn Owls primarily consists of small mammals, particularly rodents such as mice and rats. They are known for their silent flight, which allows them to sneak up on their prey without detection.
Barn Owls have a unique nesting behavior. They do not build nests, but instead, lay their eggs directly on the bare surface of a secluded ledge or cavity. A female typically lays 4-7 eggs, and both parents help incubate the eggs and care for the chicks.
The long-eared owl (Asio otus)
Long-eared Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Asio otus
Length: 12 and 16 in
Wingspan: 2 ft 10 in to 3 ft 4 in
Weight: 5.6 to 15.3 oz
The Long-eared Owl is a medium-sized owl species known for its distinctively long ear tufts, which can be raised or lowered depending on the bird’s mood or intention.
Long-eared Owls have mottled brown and cream plumage, which provides excellent camouflage among the trees. Their most distinctive features are their long, black-tipped ear tufts, which are set closer to the center of the head than in most other owl species.
These owls inhabit a wide variety of habitats, including deciduous and coniferous forests, woodlands, and even semi-deserts.
The Long-eared Owl’s diet primarily consists of small mammals, especially voles, but they will also take small birds and insects. They are skillful hunters, often capturing prey from a perch or in flight.
In terms of nesting behavior, Long-eared Owls do not construct their own nests, instead they take over old nests built by other bird species, usually those of corvids or other large birds. They lay an average of 4 to 5 eggs, which are incubated by the female while the male provides food.
Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus)
Short-eared Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Asio flammeus
Length: 13–17 in
Wingspan: 33 to 43 in
Weight: 7.3–16.8 oz
The Short-eared Owl is a medium-sized owl species with a wide distribution, found across North and South America, Europe, Asia, and many Pacific islands. Despite its name, the “ears” of the Short-eared Owl are not often visible, as they are small and tend to blend with the bird’s feathers.
The owls are predominantly brown with buff and white accents throughout their body and wings, and dark patches around their yellow eyes.
Short-eared Owls diet consists largely of small mammals, especially voles. However, they are opportunistic hunters and will also prey on a variety of other animals, including other birds, when available.
Their habitat is characterized by open areas like grasslands, marshes, and tundra. They nest on the ground, which is unusual for owls, and this makes them vulnerable to ground predators. As such, they often live in areas with tall grasses or other ground cover for protection.
Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus)
Northern Saw-whet Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Aegolius acadicus
Length: 17–22 cm (6.7–8.7 in)
Wingspan: 42–56.3 cm (16.5–22.2 in)
Weight: 54 to 151 g (1.9 to 5.3 oz)
The Northern Saw-whet Owl is a tiny, speckled gray owl and it’s one of the smallest owls in North America. It’s also known as the Little Owl or Wood Owl in some areas.
Northern Saw-whet Owls have dark brown eyes, white eyebrows, and yellow beak. It has brownish-grey feathers that are spotted with white. The owl’s legs are covered in feathers and appear nearly invisible when the bird is perched on a branch or tree.
In the winter they migrate south to warmer climates. They prefer to live in dense coniferous forest with large trees but will occasionally nest in shrubs or other vegetation that can protect them from predators.
The Northern Saw-whet Owl eats mice and voles (small rodents), small birds, frogs, salamanders, moles and shrews, but unlike most owls they chop their prey up and spread over a few meals. They will also eat insects like beetles and grasshoppers if they are available. It hunts from a perch at night using its excellent hearing to locate prey items within about 30 feet (9 meters) of its nest.
These owls nest in tree cavities usually located close to water sources such as lakes or rivers where they can find their food source (insects). They lay 2-4 eggs at one time which incubate for about 30 days before hatching.
Snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus)
Snowy owl Sound
Scientific Name: Bubo scandiacus
Length: 20.7 to 28 in
Wingspan: 3 ft 10 in to 6 ft 0 in
Weight: 3.2lb to 5.3lb
The Snowy Owl, is of the most well-known species of owls, the Snowy Owl is renowned for its striking appearance and adaptations to its extreme environment.
Snowy Owls are medium sized birds that possess a rounded head, yellow eyes, and a black beak. The most distinctive feature of the Snowy Owl is its white plumage, which provides effective camouflage in its snowy habitat. Male Snowy Owls are often almost completely white, while females and younger owls have more extensive dark barring on their plumage.
Unlike many owl species, Snowy Owls are primarily diurnal, which means they are active during the day. This is an adaptation to life in the Arctic, where there can be 24 hours of daylight in the summer. Their diet mainly consists of small mammals, particularly lemmings, but they are known to eat a variety of animals including birds, fish, and even carrion when necessary.
Snowy Owls nest on the ground, usually on a mound or boulder. Their breeding success is closely tied to the availability of food, and in good years a single pair of owls can raise a large brood of chicks.
Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia)
Burrowing Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Athene cunicularia
Length: 7–11 in
Wingspan: 20–24 in
The Burrowing Owl is a small, long-legged species of owl found in North and South America. Known for its unusual habit of living in burrows in the ground.
Burrowing Owls have a rounded head with no ear tufts and bright yellow eyes. Their overall coloration is mottled brown and white with a distinct white “eyebrow” above each eye.
Their primary habitat includes open landscapes such as grasslands, deserts, agricultural areas, golf courses, and even airports. As their name suggests, these owls often reside in burrows, many of which are abandoned by prairie dogs, ground squirrels, or other burrowing animals. In some cases, they may also dig their own burrows.
Burrowing Owls diet consists mainly of small mammals and insects, but they also eat birds and reptiles.
Burrowing Owls have a unique nesting behavior. They lay their eggs in an underground burrow to protect them from predators and extreme weather. Clutch sizes range from 6 to 11 eggs, which are incubated for about a month before hatching.
Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa)
Great Gray Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Strix nebulosa
Length: 26 in to 28 in
Wingspan: 56 to 60 in
Weight:2.2 lb to 2.85lb
The Great Gray Owl, or Strix nebulosa, is a very large owl, native to the boreal forests across North America and Eurasia. Despite its great size, it’s more so known for its impressive appearance rather than its weight, as it is outweighed by several other large owl species.
The Great Gray Owl has a large, rounded head with a grey face and yellow eyes, surrounded by concentric circles of dark and light feathering. It is known for its bow-tie-shaped white moustache stripe and black chin spot.
One of the distinguishing characteristics of this owl is its elongated tail, which makes it appear much larger than it actually is. The plumage is mostly grey with a unique pattern of fine white, gray, and brown streaks and bars. Despite its large size, its diet primarily consists of small rodents, like voles and pocket gophers.
Great Gray Owls prefer dense coniferous forests, often near open meadows or bogs. Rather than building their own nests, they typically use nests previously built by other large birds, such as hawks or crows. They also occasionally nest in broken-top trees or on man-made structures.
Northern Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium gnoma)
Northern Pygmy-Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Glaucidium gnoma
Length: 7 – 7 1/2 in)
Wingspan: 14.5 – 16 in
The Northern Pygmy-Owl is a small owl species native to North and Central America. Despite its small size, this owl is a fierce predator, known for its distinctive call and daytime hunting habits.
They have a rounded head without ear tufts and large yellow eyes. Their overall coloration is gray or brown with a pattern of white spots on the back and streaks on the front.
Northern Pygmy-Owls inhabit a range of habitats, including coniferous forests, deciduous woodlands, and mixed forests. They can be found at a range of elevations from lowlands to mountains. Unlike many other owl species, they are often active during the day, particularly in the early morning and late afternoon.
Their diet primarily consists of small mammals and birds, but they are also known to eat insects and reptiles. Despite their small size, they have been known to take prey up to three times their own size.
Northern Pygmy-Owls nest in tree cavities, often those created by woodpeckers. They do not build nests of their own but will add a few feathers to the cavity. Clutch size is usually around 2 to 7 eggs, which are incubated by the female while the male brings food.
Flammulated Owl (Psiloscops flammeolus)
Flammulated Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Psiloscops flammeolus
Length: 6 in
Wingspan: 14 in
Weight: 1.8 – 2.3 oz
The Flammulated Owl is a small owl species native to North America, notable for its incredible migratory journeys, which may span thousands of miles.
Flammulated Owls name “flammulated” comes from the Latin word for flame, and it refers to their flame-like markings. These owls sport a mottled gray and rust color, with dark eye patches and a white throat. Their small size and cryptic plumage help them to blend into the bark of the trees in which they reside.
One of the defining traits of the Flammulated Owl is their diet they predominantly eat insects, particularly moths and beetles.
These owls prefer to nest in mature forests, often in old woodpecker holes or natural tree cavities. They typically lay 2-4 eggs, with the female incubating them for about three weeks, while the male provides food.
Flammulated Owls are known for their soft, low hooting call which can be difficult to hear. This, along with their excellent camouflage, often makes them challenging to spot, despite their widespread distribution.
Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus)
Boreal Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Aegolius funereus
Length: 8.7–10.6 in
Wingspan: 20–24 in
Weight: 3.8 oz–6.3 oz
The Boreal Owl, also known as Tengmalm’s Owl, is a small yet captivating nocturnal bird found predominantly in the northern hemisphere’s boreal forests, hence its name.
The Boreal Owl is petite in size, its plumage is predominantly grayish-brown, with white spots sprinkled on the upper parts and pale streaks on the underside, which lends a mottled effect. The bird’s rounded head, lack of ear tufts, and large yellow eyes are characteristic traits of this species.
Boreal Owls have a distinctive call, described as a series of soft, low hoots, which can often be heard during the cold winter months. As strictly nocturnal birds, they rest during the day, usually in tree cavities or similar concealed spots, and become active at night.
These owls are remarkable hunters, feeding mainly on small mammals such as voles and shrews, although they have been known to consume small birds when available. Their exceptional hearing allows them to locate prey under the snow in the darkest of nights.
Eastern Screech-Owl (Megascops asio)
Eastern Screech-Owl Sound
Scientific Name: Megascops asio
Length: 6 to 10 in
Wingspan: 8 to 24 in
Weight: 4 – 8.5 oz
The Eastern Screech-Owl is a small owl species native to most wooded environments of the eastern half of North America, from the Canadian provinces to Florida and Texas.
Eastern Screech-Owls are relatively small and exhibit a complex pattern of gray or reddish-brown coloration, which provides excellent camouflage against tree bark.
These owls are known for their distinctive call, which is often described as a haunting trill or a whinny-like sound. Despite their name, they do not actually produce a “screech.”
Eastern Screech-Owls feed on a variety of prey, ranging from small mammals and birds to insects and even earthworms. It is primarily nocturnal, hunting at night from a low perch and swooping down onto prey.
Eastern Screech-Owls nest in tree cavities or abandoned woodpecker nests, but they readily adapt to nesting boxes where natural cavities are not available. They typically lay between 2 to 6 eggs, which are incubated primarily by the female.
Where to Spot Wyoming’s Owls
Yellowstone National Park: This iconic park hosts a variety of owl species, including Great Horned Owls, Northern Saw-whet Owls, and Great Gray Owls.
Grand Teton National Park: Located in northwestern Wyoming, this park is an excellent location for spotting Great Horned Owls, Northern Pygmy Owls, and Barred Owls among others.
Bighorn National Forest: Covering over a million acres, the forest is home to a number of owl species including Great Horned Owls, Northern Saw-whet Owls, and Flammulated Owls.
Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests: These forests stretch across Wyoming and Colorado, and provide habitat for numerous owl species, including Great Horned Owls, Northern Saw-whet Owls, and Eastern Screech Owls.
Shoshone National Forest: Known as the first national forest in the United States, this location provides ample opportunity to spot owls like Great Gray Owls, Northern Saw-whet Owls, and Barred Owls.
Craters of the Moon National Monument, Sawtooth National Forest
Tips on How to Spot Owls in Wyoming
Locations: Diverse habitats in Wyoming offer opportunities to spot different species. Visit the Snowy Range, the Medicine Bow National Forest, or the vast prairies for the best chances to see a variety of owls.
Time: Owls are primarily nocturnal, so the best time to spot them is at dusk or dawn. During the breeding season, male owls can be more vocal which can help you locate them.
Listen for Calls: Learn the various owl calls before heading out. Each species of owl has its own unique call. Listening to these calls can often lead you to the bird before you spot it.
Look for Signs: Look for signs like owl pellets at the base of trees, white droppings, or feathers that could indicate the presence of owls.
Equipment: Carry a good pair of binoculars or a spotting scope for a better view. Use a flashlight with a red filter if you’re looking at night, as this is less disturbing to owls.
Respect the Owls: Keep a safe distance to avoid disturbing the birds, especially during their nesting season. It’s also essential not to use recorded owl calls, as this can cause unnecessary stress to the birds.
Join a Bird Watching Group: Consider joining a local bird watching group like the Wyoming Audubon Society. They often organize owl-spotting outings and provide a wealth of knowledge and experience.